Canals and navigations are human-made channels for water. In the vernacular both are referred to as 'canals'. The main difference between them is that a navigation parallels a river and shares its drainage basin, while a canal cuts across a drainage divide.
Types of artificial waterways
A navigation is a series of channels that run roughly parallel to the valley and stream bed of an unimproved river. A navigation always shares the drainage basin of the river. A vessel uses the calm parts of the river itself as well as improvements, traversing the same changes in height.
Most commercially important canals of the first half of the 19th-century were a little of each, using rivers in long stretches, and divide crossing canals in others. This is true for many canals still in use.
Structures used in artificial waterways
Both navigations and canals use engineered structures to improve navigation:
Although the Austrian, German and Russian administrations exerted much pressure on the Polish nation (during the 19th and early 20th centuries) following the Partitions of Poland, which resulted in attempts to suppress the Polish language, a rich literature has regardless developed over the centuries and the language currently has the largest number of speakers of the West Slavic group. It is also the second most widely spoken Slavic language, after Russian and just ahead of Ukrainian, which comes third.
Founded in Amsterdam, on November 14, 1887 a football club was formed from members of three cricket clubs, R.U.N., Amstels and Progress: RAP.
The team managed to win the Netherlands Football League Championship five times, and were undefeated in the 1898-99 season. The dominance of R.A.P. in that season was demonstrated by the fact that HVV Den Haag, who finished second that year, were eight points behind R.A.P. in the end. Furthermore, they won the De Telegraaf Cup in 1898-99 for the first time, making R.A.P. the first team in the Netherlands to win the League title and the Cup in the same season.
In 1900-1901 they finished fourth place, followed by a fifth-place finish in 1901-1902. in 1902-03 RAP hit rock bottom and finished last in the league, forcing them to play in a relegation playoff series, which they won, very narrowly escaping relegation. A few years later the club would eventually be relegated to the second division anyway.
Powered by a 12g disposable CO2 cartridge or re-fillable internal air system, it features a blowback design and 9 shot capacity magazine using .43 caliber paintballs or rubberballs. The trigger is double-action (DA/SA). First versions did not have a conventional on/off safety. Current versions now have a manual trigger-lock safety. The marker is cocked by working the slide and there is also a functional de-cocker. It differs from the RAP4/5 system as it does not use (and therefore) eject shell casings. Muzzle velocity is adjustable between 200ft/s and 300ft/s. For .43 cal paintball - 0.029 oz it is about 3.4371 J (at 300ft/s).
The RAM P99 looks, feels and shoots with great accuracy just like the Walther P99 firearm making it ideal for law enforcement and military training, especially close quarter battles and room clearings. The RAM P99 is also used for virtual reality paintball play.
Rap1 (Ras-proximate-1 or Ras-related protein 1) is a small GTPase, which are small cytosolic proteins that act like cellular switches and are vital for effective signal transduction. There are two isoforms of the Rap1 protein, each encoded by a separate gene, RAP1A and RAP1B. Rap1 belongs to Ras-related protein family.
GTPases are inactive when in their GDP-bound form, and become active when they bind to GTP. GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) regulate small GTPases, with GAPs promoting the GDP-bound (inactive) form, and GEFs promoting the GTP-bound (active) form. When bound to GTP, small GTPases regulate myriad cellular processes. These proteins are divided into families depending on their protein structure, and the most well studied is the Ras superfamily, of which Rap1 is a member. Whereas Ras is known for its role in cell proliferation and survival, Rap1 is predominantly involved in cell adhesion and cell junction formation. Ras and Rap are regulated by different sets of guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, thus providing one level of specificity.